Educational Tools

New York City Department of Education

After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe. The church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education. Some of these establishments ultimately evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe’s modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School. Founded in 1088, the University of Bologne is considered the first, and the oldest continually operating university.

The city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476. Out of 182 colleges surveyed in 2009 nearly half said tuition for online courses was higher than for campus-based ones. Many open universities are working to have the ability to offer students standardized testing and traditional degrees and credentials.

Primary schools are often subdivided into infant schools and junior schools. Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship …